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Bronopol is an organic compound that is used as an antimicrobial. It is a white solid although commercial samples appear yellow.




David R. Karsa, in Handbook for Cleaning/Decontamination of Surfaces, 2007

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3.6.6. Other Halogen-Containing Biocides

Other halogen-containing biocides of note include 2-bromo-2-nitropropan-l,3-diol (BNPD, commonly known as “Bronopol”), β-bromo-β-nitrostyrene, 1,2-dibromo-2,4-dicyanobutane (DBDCB), 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA), 3-iodo-2-propynylbutyl carbamate (IPBC), chlorthalonil and 1-bromo-3-chloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin.

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Some of these products find application in water treatment. In this end use, large volumes of industrial water may be stored and recycled through large evaporative cooling towers, whereas smaller cooling towers may be used in hotels and public buildings to deal with water used in air conditioning systems.

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Protection against the growth of microorganisms is required and effectiveness against bacteria responsible for Legionnaire’s Disease is particularly important [11]. The chosen biocide must be effective at great dilution, relatively inexpensive, non-volatile, non-corrosive and preferably non-foaming. The halogen-containing biocides, β-bromo-β-nitrostyrene and 2-bromo-2-nitropropan-l,3-diol, along with methylene bisthiocyanate (Figure F.2.17) are commonly used in this application.

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Figure F.2.17. Water treatment biocides

Swimming pool treatment systems also employ bromine-release compounds such as 1-bromo-3-chloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (Figure F.2.18).

Figure F.2.18. 1-Bromo-3-chloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin

Sometimes these materials are sold as solid sticks, perhaps 3 inches long, which are placed in a special device allowing water to pick up small quantity of reagent as it flows over the solid.

The Regulatory Evaluation of the Skin Effects of Pesticides

Michael O’Malley, in Hayes’ Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition), 2010

Bronopo lIrritation, Sensitization, and Illness Data

In animal testing, many of the miscellaneous disinfectant compounds [2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilpropionamide, 2-(hydroxymethylamino)-ethanol, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol (bronopol), and iodine] and glutaraldehyde appear to be corrosive or severely irritant (see Table 28.6). Highlights of registration data and public domain literature on selected compounds are discussed next.

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Bronopol has long been recognized as a sensitizer in the public domain literature (Camarasa, 1986; Frosch et al., 1990), related to its capacity for releasing formaldehyde (Cronin, 1980; Kranke et al., 1996). 1,2-Dibromo-2,4-dicyanobutane (Tosti et al., 1995; Vigan et al., 1996) and iodine (Ancona et al., 1985; Erdmann et al., 1999) have also been associated with cases of contact sensitization. Glutaraldehyde is recognized as a sensitizer in the public domain literature (Endo and Takigawa, 2006). Registration data showed that 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilpropionamide is also a sensitizer in the Buehler test (see Table 28.6).

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Organotin compounds have been reported as irritants (Gammeltoft, 1978). Registration studies showed that several mixtures of concentrated tributyltin compounds (10–30% concentrations of tributyltin fluoride and tributyltin methacrylate) caused corrosion in the Draize assay. Less concentrated allergenic effects of tributyltin compounds generally are probably not significant, but products containing tributyltin benzoate and tributyltin methacrylate were both sensitizers in the Buehler test (see Table 28.6).

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Among the miscellaneous antimicrobial compounds, only iodine and glutaraldehyde were associated with cases in the handler database (see Table 28.6).


In Meyler’s Side Effects of Drugs (Sixteenth Edition), 2016


Formaldehyde is released by numerous agents, such as paraformaldehydedichlorophene, Dowicil 75 and Dowicil 200 (cis-1-(3-chloroalkyl)-3,5,7-triaza-l-azonia-adamantane chloride), bronopolBiocide DS 52–49 (1,2-benzoisothiazoline-3-one plus a formaldehyde releaser), and Bakzid (cyclic aminoacetal). Formalin is an alternative name for an aqueous solution of formaldehyde, but the latter name is preferred, since formalin is also used as a brand name in some countries.

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Free formaldehyde is used in cosmetics, especially in hair shampoos, and in many disinfectants and antiseptics. The solid paraformaldehyde is used as a source of formaldehyde vapor for the disinfection of rooms. Noxythiolin, polynoxylin, hexamidine, and taurolidine act by slow release of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde solution contains 34–38% of formaldehyde methanol as a stabilizing agent to delay polymerization of the formaldehyde. Formaldehyde gel contains 0.75% of formaldehyde and is used to treat warts.

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Formaldehyde cannot be applied safely to the skin or the mucous membranes in the concentration necessary to rapidly kill microbes, and formaldehyde solutions have to be diluted before use to a 2–8% solution to disinfect inanimate objects and to a 1–2% solution for disinfection by scrubbing. For fumigation of air a concentration of 1–2% is used.

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Michael O’Malley, in Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Second Edition), 2001 Other Antimicrobial Compounds

Among the miscellaneous antimicrobial compounds, only iodine was associated with a case in the handler database. Nevertheless, many of the compounds, (2,2-dibromo-3-nitril-propionamide), 2-(hydroxymethylamino)-ethanol, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, and sodium pyrithione, appear to be corrosive or severely irritantBronopol has long been recognized as a sensitizer (Camarasa, 1986; Frosch et al., 1990), related to its capacity for releasing formaldehyde (Kranke et al., 1996); 1,2-dibromo-2,4-dicyanobutane (Tosti et al., 1995; Vigan et al., 1996) and iodine (Ancona et al., 1985; Erdmann et al., 1999), have also been associated with cases of contact sensitization. Organotin compounds have been reported as irritants (Gammeltoft, 1978). Allergenic effects of tributyl tin compounds generally are probably not significant, but tributyltin methacrylate is an equivocal sensitizer in the Buehler test (Table 11.1).

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In Meyler’s Side Effects of Drugs (Sixteenth Edition), 2016

bronopol Immunologic

Triclosan has occasionally been associated with contact dermatitis [5–10] and contact urticaria [11], but allergic reactions are said to be uncommon [12]. In one study only 0.8% of the 2295 patients tested had positive reactions [13].For comparison, the rates of positive reactions to other preservatives studied were: formaldehyde 5.7%, benzalkonium chloride 5.5%, Kathon CG 5.5%, thiomersal 4.2%, chlorhexidine digluconate 2.0%, DMDM hydantoin 1.7%, paraben mix 1.7%, chloroacetamide 1.5%, Bronopol 1.2%, imidazolidinyl urea 1.0%, quaternium 15 1.0%, and 2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol 0.4%.

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In 10-year-old Norwegian children urinary concentrations of triclosan were measured and related to sensitization to at least one of 15 evaluated inhalant and food allergens (determined by either skin prick test positivity or raised serum-specific IgE concentrations), current rhinitis, and current asthma [14]. The adjusted odds ratio for allergic sensitization among those in the fourth quartile of triclosan concentration was 2.0 (95% CI = 1.1, 3.4) compared with the reference group in whom the triclosan concentration was below the lower limit of detection; the adjusted odds ratio for current rhinitis was 1.9 (95% CI = 1.1, 3.4).

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A 50-year-old kitchen assistant, who used an aerosol disinfectant containing triclosan, developed a persistent facial eruption, with generalized facial erythema, gross periorbital edema, and pruritus [15]. The eruption varied from time to time, sometimes clearing and sometimes involving the anterior neck, chest, and upper shoulders. Patch tests with the British baseline, facial, and hairdressing series showed a positive reaction to triclosan 2% in petrolatum.

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In a study using data from the 2003–6 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, higher urinary triclosan concentrations were associated with increased frequencies of diagnoses of allergy or hay fever [16].

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In 7303 subjects with asthma, urinary triclosan concentrations were associated with an attack of asthma during the previous year (for the second tertile, adjusted OR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.15, 3.13; for the third tertile, adjusted OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.01, 3.15) [17].

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Fungal Diseases

In Clinical Veterinary Advisor: Birds and Exotic Pets, 2013


Therapeutic Goals

Control secondary or primary fungal pathogen

Identify and eliminate predisposing stressors such as overcrowding, poor water quality, overfeeding

Treat any concurrent parasitic and bacterial infections

Acute General Treatment


Increase salinity of pond or tank in freshwater systems to 0.1% to 0.3% (1-3 g/L) as an aid with osmoregulatory balance.

35% Perox-Aid (hydrogen peroxide, Western Chemical, Ferndale, Washington) is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved to treat freshwater-reared finfish eggs, salmonids, coolwater finfish, and channel catfish for saprolegniasis. A label claim approval is in progress for treatment of saprolegniasis in warmwater fish.

Malachite green

1-2 mg/L bath treatment for 30-60 minutes

0.1 mg/L prolonged immersion

Formalin (37% formaldehyde) for infection on eggs

1-2 mL/L up to 15-minute bath treatment

0.23 mL/L up to 60-minute bath treatment

Daily application of antifungal topical ointment such as Betadine or chlorhexidine can increase survival.

Pyceze (bronopol, Novartis UK, Surrey, United Kingdom)

Fish and egg treatment

Currently not available in the United States

Various other treatments attempted with limited success

Potassium permanganate

Methylene blue


Malachite green: 0.5 mg/L (0.5 ppm) 1-hour bath treatment

Hydrogen peroxide 100-500 ppm 1-hour bath treatment

Sodium chloride 10-20 ppt (10-20 g/L) 1-hour treatment


Malachite green: prolonged immersion 0.1 mg/L

Formalin: 0.15 mL/L followed by repeat treatment of 0.25 mL/L (multiple treatments may be required)

Reduce organic loads in ponds.

Reduce water temperature to below 20°C (68°F).


No effective treatment is known.

Dermocystidium spp.

No specific treatment is known.

Spontaneous resolution may occur.

Surgical excision of granulomas may beneficially influence recovery.

Daily application of antifungal topical ointment such as Betadine or chlorhexidine may help.

Chronic Treatment

Maintain best management practices, including strict attention to water quality.

Cull infected fish and remove dead fish promptly.

Remove and prevent accumulation of decaying organic matter, which can be a food source for many water molds.

Remove dead eggs promptly (Saprolegnia spp.).

Discourage feeding raw fish and raw fish products (BranchiomycesIchthyophonus spp.).

If raw fish must be fed, freeze tissue at −20°C (−4°F) or heat to 40°C (104°F) for 3 minutes to kill parasite.

Dry earthen ponds and expose to ultraviolet light for a long time (BranchiomycesIchthyophonus spp.).

Disinfect drained ponds with chlorine if possible.

Spores of Ichthyophonus have been shown to survive up to 2 years in seawater at wide temperature ranges and varying pH levels.

Drug Interactions

A biotest should always be done when dealing with a large population of fish because species tolerance to chemotherapeutic agents varies.

Malachite green stains can be highly toxic to some species (tetras), fry, and some plants.

Malachite green is more toxic at high water temperatures and low pH.

Malachite green has been reported as having teratogenic and mutagenic properties.

Formalin cannot be used to treat eggs within 24 hours of hatching.

Water stability of Pyceze increases with decreasing hardness and pH.

Possible Complications

Adverse drug reactions

Caenorhabditis elegans: Molecular Genetics and Development

Gina Broitman-Maduro, Morris F. Maduro, in Methods in Cell Biology, 2011

VI Materials

DEPC-ddH2O (0.1% v/v)

Millipore water or equivalent 500 mL
DEPC (Sigma) 0.5 mL

Suspend the DEPC by shaking vigorously, leave in a fume hood over night, and autoclave (121°C at 15 lb/in2 for 15 min).


2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol (Fisher, # AC15882-1000) 30 g
Diazolidinyl Urea (MP Biomedical, # ICN19019183) 30 g
Zinc Sulfate Heptahydrate, ZnSO4·7H2O 12 g
Sodium Citrate (anhydrous), Na3C6H5O7 2.9 g

Add DEPC-ddH2O up to 1 L. Make and store in an autoclaved glass container at room temperature. Heat 30–50 mL to 37°C in a Coplin jar prior to use (Of this heated aliquot, do not add unused fixative back to stock, and do not reuse.).

50× Denhardt’s solution

Ficoll (Type 400) 0.1 g
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) 0.1 g
Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) 0.1 g
DEPC-ddH2O to 10 mL

Dissolve components, pass through a 0.45 μm filter, and store in 200 μL aliquots at −20°C.

Salmon sperm DNA

Lyophilized DNA 1 g
Tris-EDTA pH 8.0 (TE, Fisher #BP2473-1) 100 mL

Add TE to DNA in an autoclavable glass Wheaton bottle. Autoclave (121°C at 15 lb/in2 for 15 min), cool to room temperature, dispense into Eppendorf tubes in 1 mL aliquots, and freeze at −20°C. As a result of autoclaving, the DNA will have been sheared to the 200 bp–5 kbp range, which can be checked by running an aliquot on an agarose gel.

Prehybridization buffer

20× SSC (Fisher, #BP1325-1) 2 mL
Dextran Sulfate 1 g
Formamide 5 mL
0.5 M EDTA 40 μL
50× Denhardt’sSolution 200 μL
Sheared Salmon Sperm DNA 1 mL

Add DEPC-ddH2O up to 10 mL. Vortex the suspension and heat to 65°C to get into solution. This may take 30 min or more.

Formamide buffer (FB)

Formamide 30 mL
20× SSC 0.5 mL

Add up to 50 mL with DEPC-ddH2O in sterile plastic Falcon tube or equivalent.

Tris pH 7.5, NaCl (TN), and TN-EDTA

1M Tris, pH 7.5 (Fisher, #1757-500) 50 mL
2M NaCl 37.5 mL

Add up to 500 mL DEPC-ddH2O and autoclave.

For TN-EDTA, add 1 mL of 0.5M EDTA to 50 mL of TN.

Blocking buffer

Milk Blocker (Bio-Rad # 170-6404) 2.5 g
TN to 50 mL

Make in sterile plastic 50 mL Falcon tubes. Suspend by vortexing.

0.93M Tris, pH 9.5

1M Tris, pH 7.5 (Fisher, BP1757500) 500 mL
10M NaOH 43.5 mL

Dispense aliquots into sterile 50-mL Falcon tubes and freeze at −20°C. May be thawed in 37°C incubator prior to use. (We have found pH adjustment of the RNase-free Fisher stock to be a more convenient way to make this buffer than to make 1M Tris pH 9.5 by other means.)

Tris, NaCl, MgCl2, (pH 9.5) (2× TNM),

0.93M Tris (pH 9.5) (see above) 100 mL
2M NaCl 50 mL
1M MgCl2 50 mL
DEPC-ddH2O to 500 mL

Autoclave for 15 min at 121°C, 15 lb/in2. Dispense aliquots into 50 mL Falcon tubes. Store at −20°C. Thaw the morning that it is needed. If a white precipitate occurs, heat in a 65°C waterbath and vortex, then cool before use.

To 25 mL of 2× TNM, add 25 mL DEPC-ddH2O. This is used as the last wash prior to development. The other 25 mL aliquots are used to make the Developer solution.


Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT)

NBT is resuspended to 100 mg/mL in 70% dimethyl formamide and stored in aliquots at −20°C.


5-Bromo-4-Chloro-3-Indolyl Phosphate (BCIP)

BCIP is resuspended to 50 mg/mL in anhydrous dimethyl formamide and stored in aliquots at −20°C.

2× Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)

PVA (Fluka 40-88, Sigma #81386) 50 g
DEPC-ddH2O to 500 mL

This solution takes very long to go into solution. It is best to start with freshly autoclaved (warm) DEPC-ddH2O and add PVA to a sterile container. Incubate at 65°C for several days, stirring often with a 25 mL plastic serological pipette; A stir bar is not recommended. When it is fully in suspension, the solution will have the consistency of glycerol. Store at room temperature.

In our hands, PVA in the developer greatly improves signal quality, and is worth the trouble to make.

Developer Solution

2× TNM 25 mL
2× PVA 25 mL
NBT 200 μL
BCIP 200 μL
Levamisole 7.2 mg

Mix reagents in a Falcon tube and mix by inversion. Prepare immediately before use.


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