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Trenbolone is an anabolic steroid. It is used on livestock to increase muscle growth and appetite.

Trenbolone Description

Trenbolone, also known as trienolone or trienbolone, is a steroid used on livestock to increase muscle growth and appetite. To increase its effective half-life, trenbolone is administered as a prodrug as an ester conjugate such as trenbolone acetate, trenbolone enanthate, or trenbolone cyclohexylmethylcar

Trenbolone

Trenbolone is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) of the nandrolone group which itself was never marketed.[1][2][3][4][5] Trenbolone ester prodrugs, including trenbolone acetate (brand names FinajetFinaplix, others) and trenbolone hexahydrobenzylcarbonate (brand names ParabolanHexabolan), are or have been marketed for veterinary and clinical use.[1][2][3][5][6][7] Trenbolone acetate is used in veterinary medicine in livestock to increase muscle growth and appetite, while trenbolone hexahydrobenzylcarbonate was formerly used clinically in humans but is now no longer marketed.[1][2][3][5] In addition, although it is not approved for clinical or veterinary use, trenbolone enanthate is sometimes sold on the black market under the nickname Trenabol.[5]

Trenbolone Pharmacodynamics[edit]

This drug has both anabolic and androgenic effects.[5] Once metabolized, this drug esters have the effect of increasing ammonium ion uptake by muscles, leading to an increase in the rate of protein synthesis. It may also have the secondary effects of stimulating appetite and decreasing the rate of catabolism, as all anabolic steroids are believed to; however, catabolism likely increases significantly once the steroid is no longer taken.[8] At least one study in rats has shown trenbolone to cause gene expression of the androgen receptor (AR) at least as potent as dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This evidence tends to indicate trenbolone can cause an increase in male secondary sex characteristics without the need to convert to a more potent androgen in the body.[9]

Studies on metabolism are mixed, with some studies showing that it is metabolized by aromatase or 5α-reductase into estrogenic compounds, or into 5α-reduced androgenic compounds, respectively.[10][11]

This drug has potency five times as high as that of testosterone.[5][12] This drug also binds with high affinity to the progesterone receptor,[5][12][13][14] This drug binds to the glucocorticoid receptor, as well.[13]

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

To prolong its elimination half-life, This drug is administered as a prodrug as an ester conjugate such as trenbolone acetatetrenbolone enanthate, or trenbolone hexahydrobenzylcarbonate.[1][2][3][5] Plasma lipases then cleave the ester group in the bloodstream leaving free trenbolone.[citation needed]

This drug and 17-epitrenbolone are both excreted in urine as conjugates that can be hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase.[15] This implies that this drug leaves the body as beta-glucuronides or sulfates.

Chemistry[edit]

This drug, also known as 19-nor-δ9,11-testosterone or as estra-4,9,11-trien-17β-ol-3-one, is a synthetic estrane steroid and a derivative of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone).[1][2][5] It is specifically nandrolone with two additional double bonds in the steroid nucleus.[1][2][5] Trenbolone esters, which have an ester at the C17β position, include trenbolone acetatetrenbolone enanthatetrenbolone hexahydrobenzylcarbonate, and trenbolone undecanoate.[1][2][5][16]

Basic information about different types steroids included base trenbolone inside structure.
Name: Trenbolone Trenbolone acetate Trenbolone enanthate Trenbolone hexahydrobenzylcarbonate(cyclohexylmethylcarbonate)
Structural[16] Trenbolone.png Trenbolone acetate.svg Trenbolone enanthate.svg Trenbolone cyclohexylmethylcarbonate.svg
Formula C18H22O2 C20H24O3 C25H34O3 C26H34O4
Crystal system[16] monocrystalic monocrystalic monocrystalic
Elimination half life 48-72 hours[citation needed] short1-2 days[16]; 3 days[17] long11 days[16] 8 days[16]

History[edit]

This drug was first synthesized in 1963.[18]

Society and culture[edit]

Generic names[edit]

This drug is the generic name of the drug and its INN and BAN.[1][2][3] It has also been referred to as trienolone or trienbolone.[1][2][3][19]

Legal status[edit]

Some bodybuilders and athletes use trenbolone esters for their muscle-building and otherwise performance-enhancing effects.[5] Such use is illegal in the United States and several European and Asian countries. The DEA classifies trenbolone and its esters as Schedule III controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act.[20] Trenbolone is classified as a Schedule 4 drug in Canada[21] and a class C drug with no penalty for personal use or possession in the United Kingdom.[22] Use or possession of steroids without a prescription is a crime in Australia.[23]

Doping in sports[edit]

There are known cases of doping in sports with trenbolone esters by professional athletes.

References[edit]

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Index Nominum 2000: International Drug Directory. Taylor & Francis. January 2000. p. 1591. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e f I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 279–. ISBN 978-94-011-4439-1.
  4. ^ https://www.drugs.com/international/trenbolone.html
  5. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m William Llewellyn (2011). Anabolics. Molecular Nutrition Llc. pp. 491–499, 618–, 724–. ISBN 978-0-9828280-1-4.
  6. ^ Nichols, Wade; Hutcheson, John; Streeter, Marshall; Corrigan, Mark; Nuttelman, Brandon. “Implant Strategies for Finishing Cattle using Revalor® (trenbolone acetate and estradiol), Finaplix® (trenbolone) and/or Ralgro® (zeranol)”(PDF). Merck Animal Health.
  7. ^ Kicman, A T (2008). “Pharmacology of anabolic steroids”British Journal of Pharmacology154 (3): 502–521. doi:10.1038/bjp.2008.165ISSN 0007-1188PMC 2439524PMID 18500378.
  8. ^http://www.sportsci.org/encyc/anabster/anabster.html[full citation needed]
  9. ^ Wilson, V. S.; Lambright, C; Ostby, J; Gray Jr, LE (2002). “In Vitro and in Vivo Effects of 17beta-Trenbolone: A Feedlot Effluent Contaminant”Toxicological Sciences70 (2): 202–11. doi:10.1093/toxsci/70.2.202PMID 12441365.
  10. ^ Yarrow, Joshua F.; McCoy, Sean C.; Borst, Stephen E. (2010). “Tissue selectivity and potential clinical applications of trenbolone (17β-hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one): A potent anabolic steroid with reduced androgenic and estrogenic activity”. Steroids75 (6): 377–89. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2010.01.019PMID 20138077S2CID 205253265.
  11. ^ Gettys, TW; d’Occhio, MJ; Henricks, DM; Schanbacher, BD (1984). “Suppression of LH secretion by oestradiol, dihydrotestosterone and trenbolone acetate in the acutely castrated bull”. The Journal of Endocrinology100 (1): 107–12. doi:10.1677/joe.0.1000107PMID 6361192.
  12. Jump up to:a b C. G. Nicholas Mascie-Taylor; Lyliane Rosetta (13 January 2011). Reproduction and Adaptation: Topics in Human Reproductive Ecology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-1-139-49430-4.
  13. Jump up to:a b APMIS.: Supplementum. Munksgaard. 2001. p. 5339. ISBN 9788716164575.
  14. ^ Kenneth W. McKerns (13 March 2013). Reproductive Processes and Contraception. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 171–. ISBN 978-1-4684-3824-6.
  15. ^ Schänzer, W (1996). “Metabolism of anabolic androgenic steroids”Clinical Chemistry42 (7): 1001–20. doi:10.1093/clinchem/42.7.1001PMID 8674183.
  16. Jump up to:a b c d e f Borodi, Gheorghe; Turza, Alexandru; Camarasan, Paula Alexandra; Ulici, Adelina (2020). “Structural studies of Trenbolone, Trenbolone Acetate, Hexahydrobenzylcarbonate and Enanthate esters”. Journal of Molecular Structure1212: 128127. doi:10.1016/j.molstruc.2020.128127ISSN 0022-2860.
  17. ^ Ruiz, Pedro; Strain, Eric C. (2011). Lowinson and Ruiz’s Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-1-60547-277-5.
  18. ^ Schänzer W (1996). “Metabolism of anabolic androgenic steroids”Clin. Chem42 (7): 1001–20. doi:10.1093/clinchem/42.7.1001PMID 8674183.
  19. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1990). Residues of Some Veterinary Drugs in Animals and Foods: Monographs Prepared by the Thirty-Fourth Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Geneva, 30 January-8 February 1989. Food & Agriculture Org. pp. 88–. ISBN 978-92-5-102933-6.
  20. ^ “Controlled Substances Act”. United States Food and Drug Administration. 11 June 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  21. ^ http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-38.8/page-24.html?term=steroids#sched4
  22. ^ http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/alcohol-drugs/drugs/acmd1/anabolic-steroids-report/anabolic-steroids?view=Binary.
  23. ^http://www.aic.gov.au/en/crime_types/drugs_alcohol/drug_types/steroids.aspx

Further reading[edit]

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